I³MS - Klar Seminar
Prof. Dr. Axel Klar - Mean Field Approaches to Interacting Particles and Fiber Dynamics
The talk will present an application-oriented introduction to mean-field approximations of interacting physical systems. We investigate microscopic particle systems and their mean-field approximations as well as related hydrodynamic and scalar macroscopic models. Numerical methods for these equations based on mesh-free particle methods for fluid-dynamic equations are discussed, as well as asymptotic preserving approaches for the transition between the different equations. Finally, applications to non-woven textile production, granular flow and crowd dynamics are presented.
I³MS - Nam Seminar
Prof. Dr. Jaewook Nam - Computational Analysis for Thin Film Formation Processes
, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
When thin-film manufacturing products such as adhesives, magnetic tapes, battery electrode and optical films are required to be produced at high speed yet maintaining a high degree of uniformity, liquid-phase processing method desirable. The continuous liquid coating process is a method of choice for such purpose, which consisted of numerous unit operations. To maintain a high degree of uniformity, one can exploit surface tension of gas/liquid interfaces, when the coating solution is dilute, which means low viscous liquid. However, an excessive amount of solvent needs to be removed to form a solid film. Therefore, the key steps for the coating process are the application step, where relatively low viscous media to form a liquid layer on a moving substrate, and the drying step, where solidification and microstructure formation occur. Current industrial trends require less solvent or water-based solution (due to environmental regulations) and at the same time requires more functional nano- and micro-particles suspended in the coating liquid (becoming complex fluids). Therefore, understanding underlying physics in forming a thin film and its microstructures for the current coating process become more complex than conventional ones. In this respect, computational analyses play a critical role. In our research group, we focus on computational fluid dynamic analyses of film formation flows or called coating flows and thin-film microstructure evaluations using image analyses. In this seminar, finite element method based analyses on slot coating flow inside and outside coating dies, and the nanowire networks analyses inside the transparent conductive film will be discussed.
I³MS - Kiendl Seminar
Prof. Dr. Josef Kiendl - Isogeometric Methods in Structural Analysis
Isogeometric analysis is a recent method of computational analysis where functions used to describe geometries in Computer Aided Design (CAD) are adopted as basis for analysis. Due to this unified geometric representation, the model transfer from design to analysis, called mesh generation, is omitted providing a better integration of design and analysis. NURBS are the most widespread technology in today’s CAD modeling tools and therefore are adopted as basis functions for analysis. Apart from the geometrical advantages, NURBS-based isogeometric analysis has proven superior approximation properties compared to standard finite element analysis for many different applications. Furthermore, the high continuity between elements also allows the discretization of higher order PDEs, which is especially useful in structural mechanics, where the classical plate and shell theories, based on Kirchhoff’s kinematic assumption, can be implemented in a straightforward way.
We show an isogeometric shell analysis framework with formulations ranging from linear, geometrically nonlinear, and fully nonlinear shell models. All formulations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell theory and are rotation-free, i.e., using only displacement degrees of freedom. These formulations are then employed for the simulation of various problems of structural mechanics, including large deformations, buckling, elastoplasticity, and brittle fracture as well as for fluid-structure-interaction problems including the simulations of offshore wind turbine blades and bioprosthetic heart valves.
Furthermore, we show how the high continuity provided by IGA can be used in order to develop innovative structural models. In particular, we show formulations for shear deformable beams and plates with only one unknown variable, which is a generalized displacement. Corresponding numerical formulations are characterized by having considerably less degrees of freedoms than the standard formulations and are also fully locking-free.
I³MS - McKenna Seminar
Dr. Sean McKenna - Modeling Ground Water Flow and Transport in Strongly Heterogeneous Formations
Senior Research Manager, IBM Research Dublin, Ireland
Transmissivity in heterogeneous and fractured media can range over many orders of magnitude. Predictive modeling within probabilistic risk assessment calculations requires numerical representations of these heterogeneous formations. Here, an example problem for a geologic repository is used to demonstrate the application of continuous and indicator geostatistics to create a set of seed fields conditioned to a complex geologic conceptual model and local measurements of transmissivity and storativity. Inverse parameter estimation with pilot points is used to modify these seed fields to condition them to observations of hydraulic pressure including the results of over 20 years of hydraulic testing. The resulting fields are used as input to an advective transport model. In order to quantify uncertainty in the transport predictions, multiple seed fields are run through the computationally expensive inverse calibration process. Several approaches to decreasing this computational load through decomposition of the parameters into a solution space and a null-space are examined and the impacts of each approach on the calibration and the advective travel time are quantified.
I³MS - Blocken Seminar
Prof. Dr. Bert Blocken - Computational Evaluation of Climate Adaptation Measures in Urban Areas
Even if actions for mitigation of climate change would be immediate, extensive and fully effective, a certain degree of climate change would be unavoidable due to lack of mitigation actions in the past. Its impact should be limited by climate change adaptation, i.e. adapting to its consequences. This presentation focuses on climate adaptation of cities and buildings to heat waves. It presents results of the computational evaluation of climate change adaptation measures, focused on the reduction of outdoor temperature and on the reduction of indoor temperature.
Concerning the outdoor environment, vegetation is often contemplated as a viable and effective adaptation measure against heat waves. To investigate its potential for reducing outdoor temperature during heat waves, a case study with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was conducted for a street canyon in the center of the Dutch city Arnhem. First, a double validation study was conducted based on available measurement data. Next, the case study was performed for the meteorological conditions of an afternoon hour on a hot summer day during a heat wave with wind of speed 5.1 m/s at 10 m above ground and direction along the canyon. Different scenarios were analyzed: no vegetation, avenue-trees, facade greening, roof greening and all trees, facade and roof greening combined. The results highlighted some important misconceptions, indicating that some increasingly popular adaptation measures might be much less effective than often assumed.
Concerning the indoor environment, we analyzed the effectiveness of six passive climate change adaptation measures applied at the level of building components using building energy simulations for three generic residential buildings as commonly built in - among others - the Netherlands: (1) a detached house; (2) a terraced house; (3) an apartment. The study involved both residential buildings that were built according to the regulations and common practice in 2012, and residential buildings that were constructed in the 1970s, with a lower thermal resistance of the opaque and transparent parts of the building envelope. The climate change adaptation measures investigated were: (i) increased thermal resistance; (ii) changed thermal capacity; (iii) increased short-wave reflectivity (albedo); (iv) vegetative roofs; (v) exterior solar shading; and (vi) additional natural ventilation. The performance indicators were the number of overheating hours during a year and the amount of energy needed to keep the indoor air temperature within acceptable limits. The results indicated that some of the most expensive measures are least effective, while the cheapest one has the largest beneficial effect.
Given the complexity of the heat and mass transfer processes involved, the above-mentioned studies demonstrate that computational evaluation is imperative to assess the potential of climate adaptation measures, both for the outdoor environment and the indoor environment.